History And The General Characteristics of the Turkish Language

Old Turkish

-Turkish Language goes back 5500-8500 years.

-It originates to Central Asia (The oldest written records are found upon stone monuments in the Orhon, Yenisey and Talas region within the boundaries of present day Mongolia. These were erected to Bilge Kagan (735), Kultigin (732) and vizier Tonyukuk (724-725) of Göktürk Dynasty).

-The Turkish of Turkey that developed in Anatolia and across the Bosphorus in the times of the Seljuks and Ottomans was used in several valuable literary works prior to the 13 th century.

-The Turkish Language up to the 16 th Century

-With the spread of Islam among the Turks from the 10 th century onward, the Turkish language came under the heavy influence of Arabic and Persian culture.

-Turkish since the 16th century

-After 16 th century foreign terms dominated written texts. Some Turkish words disappeared altogether from the written language. Arabic and Persian languages dominated most literary works. This domination also effected spoken language in the Ottoman palace. On the other hand spoken Turkish by the public had less effect of foreign languages.

-With the 19th century reform movements and western influence and rise of nationalism the reform of the language was started. This new tendency became institutionalised with the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923 . New Latin alphabet was adopted and elimination of foreign words from Turkish was begun.

-Characteristics Of Turkish

-Turkish is sixth most widely spoken tongues in the world. (Some of the dialects are for example: Azeri, Turkmen, Tartar, etc.)

-Turkish belongs to the Altaic branch of the Ural-Altaic family of languages.

-Thus it is closely related to Mongolian, Korean and perhaps Japanese.

-Turkish uses a “vowel harmony” a feature of all Ural-Altaic tongues. (A feature unknown to English speakers)

-Turkish uses agglutination. (Where English uses a separate word, Turkish often adds an ending to an existing word)

-Nouns do not have different genders. (You do not have to remember whether the thing is feminine or masculine like you do in French or German)

-Verbs come at the end of the sentence.

-Rules of the language are very regular:

Turkish grammar is very regular (learn a rule and there are usually no exceptions)

Once you know a little vocabulary and few rules about vocabulary building, then guessing at the meanings of the new word very easy)